I did some digging into your crash report, and from what I can tell here it looks like you're having some kind of conflict with the game client. I want to try a couple checks.
1. Make sure that your drivers and windows are up to date. It's possible there's a missing framework or corrupt bit of your drivers that could cause the game to crash on launch. 2. Usually if that isn't the problem, it's another program causing the crash. I recommend watching out for any program with an overlay (Overwolf, Raptr, Discord, etc) and disable those. You should do a selective startup and close your background applications if that doesn't work. 3. The last thing I want to check for now is if it still happens on the 32 bit client. To check this, open the battle.net application, click the "options" button above the news widget, and choose "Game Settings." On this menu you want to find the Diablo III option. There is a box for "Launch 32-bit client (Instead of 64-bit)". Click this box, click done, and try again.
If you're still having trouble after this troubleshooting, please generate a text copy of your DxDiag using these instructions. Once you have that made, open the file. You'll need to copy and paste the contents of the Text document into the post using the "Code" button (</>). This will give me some more information which I can use to dig deeper into this case.